Growth factor receptors direct numerous cellular functions and behavior including cell proliferation and survival, apoptosis, differentiation and migration. These structurally related, single membrane spanning receptors consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, the catalytic tyrosine kinase domain and a C-terminal tail containing multiple tyrosine residues Figure 1. Ligand binding promotes EGF receptor homo- and hetero-dimerization with ErbB family members, activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, and phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues of the receptor cytoplasmic domain. This leads to assembly of signaling complexes and stimulation of numerous downstream signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival, increased angiogenesis, and metastasis in tumors reviewed in [ 1 — 10 ]. The extracellular N-terminal domain contains two subdomains that directly interact with ligand and two cysteine-rich subdomains. There is a single transmembrane domain that links the extracellular domain to the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and the C-terminal tail which contains the autophosphorylation sites.
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During a recent Periscope session, former WWE Superstar Melina Perez spoke at length about how she dealt with the controversy and embarassment of her nude photos leaking online years ago. For somebody to steal that kind of stuff and put it out there. That was really horrible. That's kind of the way it was comparable to my rape in a sense because it was violating.